INDEPENDENT CORPS, ZOUAVES D'AFRIQUE, INFANTRY
Captain Charles H. T. Collis
This company included many French soldiers who
had served as Zouaves in the campaigns of France and who
had been identified with the 18th Regiment, in the three
months' service. It was recruited at Philadelphia by Charles
H. T. Collis, proposing to serve as a bodyguard to Major-Gen.
N. P. Banks. The uniform adopted was that of the French
Zouaves d'Afrique and was retained by the 114th Regiment,
to which it was latter attached, throughout the war.
The corps was mustered in and sent to Fort Delaware
on August 17th, 1861, where it was thoroughly drilled
in zouave tactics. Late in September the Zouaves reported
to Gen. Banks, at Darnestown, Md. After a period of guard
duty the corps went into winter quarters. In the spring
of 1862 the command served, for a short time, with Geary's
Independent Brigade and then rejoined Gen. Banks in the
Shenandoah Valley. In a number of battles and skirmishes,
including Middletown, Cedar Mountain, second Bull Run,
Chantilly and Antietam, the Zouaves had shown those qualities
of dash and bravery for which this type of infantry is
usually famous. After the affair at Middletown, Capt.
Collis was commissioned colonel and detailed to proceed
to Philadelphia and recruit his command to a full regiment.
With nine fully uniformed companies he arrived at Washington
upon August 31st, 1862. The original company in the field,
from which many of the officers of the new regiment were
selected, became Company A.
Collis' Independent Company "Zouaves d' Afrique"
Organized at Philadelphia and mustered in August
17, 1861. Moved to Fort Delaware August 17, thence to
Frederick, Md., September 25, thence to Darnestown. Attached
to Banks' Division, Dept. Shenandoah, September, 1861.
Banks' Division, Army Potomac, to March, 1862. Banks'
5th Corps, and Dept. of the Shenandoah, March, 1862. Geary's
Independent Brigade to April, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division,
Dept. of the Shenandoah, to June, 1862. Unattached, 2nd
Corps, Army Virginia, June, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division,
2nd Corps, to August, 1862.
SERVICE.--Duty on the Upper Potomac until February,
1862. Moved to Edward's Ferry October 21, 1861, thence
to Muddy Branch October 26. Duty there until December
2. At Frederick, Md., until February 22, 1862. Advance
on Winchester March 1-12. Occupation of Winchester March
12. March to Warrenton Junction with Abercrombie's Brigade,
then with Geary at Rectortown. Rejoined Banks at Strasburg
May. Operations in the Shenandoah Valley May 15-June 17.
Strasburg May 24. Middletown May 24. Retreat to Williamsport
May 24-26. Battle of Winchester May 25. At Williamsport
until June 10. Moved to Front Royal, thence to Warrenton
and Little Washington June 10-18. Battle of Cedar Mountain
August 9. Battle of Antietam September 17(attached to
2nd Mass. Inf. Transferred to 114th Pennsylvania Infantry
as Company "A" October-November, 1862.
Colonel Charles H. T. Collis
Total Enrollment: 1,100 Officers and Men
The single company of Zouaves d'Afrique which
Capt. Collis had recruited and led to war one year before,
formed the basis as Company A of the Zouave regiment raised
in Philadelphia in the summer of 1862, and which as the
114th Infantry left the city upon September 1st. At Washington
this command was encamped at Fort Slocum, but soon afterward
was assigned to the First Brigade, First Division, of
the Third Corps, then commanded by Major-Gen. David B.
Birney. The Zouaves received their "baptism of fire"
on December 13th, when the division was rushed across
the Rappahannock river, at Franklin's Crossing, below
Fredericksburg, to the assistance of the Pennsylvania
Reserves. The loss of the 114th was twelve killed and
seventeen wounded. The Third Corps appeared in front
of Fredericksburg again in January, 1863 (Burnside's "Mud
March"), and a third time at the end of April, at
the beginning of the Chancellorsville campaign, crossing
the river, however, at United States Ford, about ten miles
above the city. In the battle of May 3d the Zouaves fought
with heroic persistence, finally retiring with a loss
of one hundred and seventy-three killed and wounded. Of
the twenty-seven officers present only three escaped death
or wounds. Among those killed were Maj. Joseph S. Chandler
and Capt. Frank A. Elliott of Co. F. The survivors returned
after this bitter experience to camp at Falmouth.
 An incident following the battle was the
capture of the regimental band of seventeen pieces, with
their instruments. The unfortunate musicians were eventually
exchanged, and being provided with new instruments, remained
with the regiment to the end of the war. (Bates' History,
vol. 3, page 1185)
The Third Corps reached Gettysburg after the
close of the fighting upon July 1st, and was ordered to
the left of the new line of battle, then being extended
to the Round Tops. On the morning of the 2d Gen. Sickles
advanced a portion of his corps, including the 114th,
to and across the Emmittsburg Pike to the right of the
Peach Orchard, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Fred.
F. Cavada. The Zouaves were a fair mark for the rebel
pickets during the morning and for the artillery fire
that preceded the infantry attack later in the day. The
Confederates surged along the line like a billow sweeping
a stormy beach, reaching the front of the 114th when the
Zouaves were forced backward, some, including Lieut.-Col.
Cavada, in command, being captured. The regiment re-formed
under Maj. Edward R. Bowen, took a new position in front
of the Taneytown Road, but was not again heavily engaged
in the course of the battle. The regimental losses were
nine men killed, one officer and eighty-five men wounded,
three officers and fifty-seven men captured or missing.
Four of the wounded men subsequently died from their injuries.
Those captured were near the Sherfy House.
Through the fall and winter of 1863-4 Maj. Bowen
continued in command, Col. Collis being in command of
the brigade. The regiment shared the fortunes of the Third
Corps in its marching and fighting, including battles
along the Rappahannock.
In April, 1864, the 114th was honored by selection
as the first of six regiments of infantry and one regiment
of cavalry organized as an independent brigade for duty
at the headquarters of Gen. Meade. Col. Collis was appointed
commander of this body of troops. This duty continued
until March 15th, 1865, and involved the assistance of
other troops in action, while the elite brigade from headquarters
was expected to exhibit a high standard of gallantry.
In the final weeks of activity around Petersburg
the 114th was engaged in the storming of the Confederate
works on April 2d, and, during the pursuit, at Sailor's
Creek. At the affair of the 2d, three veteran officers
who had originally served in the Zouaves d'Afrique of
1861 lost their lives. They were Capt. A. J. Cunningham,
Company A; Maj. Henry M. Eddy, and First Lieut. Edward
T. Marion, Company I.
 Maj. Eddy was commissioned but not mustered.
After the Appomattox surrender the 114th was
transferred to the Fifth Corps, with which the Zouaves
marched to Washington, where they were mustered out on
May 29th, 1865.
Killed or died from wounds - 6 officers; 83 men Died of
disease or other causes - 1 officer; 35 men Wounded, not
mortally - 16 officers; 261 men Captured or missing -
4 officers; 122 men
(Including those of the Zouaves d'Afrique, afterward Company
A, prior to the organization of the regiment) Middletown,
Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville,
Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, Auburn, Kelly's Ford, Mine
Run, Wilderness, Guinea's Station, Petersburg
114th Regiment Infantry "Collis Zouaves"
Organized at Philadelphia August, 1862. Left
State for Washington, D.C., August 31, 1862. Duty at Fort
Slocum, Defenses of Washington, September, 1862. Attached
to 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, to March,
1864. Provost Guard, Headquarters Army of the Potomac,
to March, 1865. Collins' Independent Brigade, 9th Army
Corps, to April, 1865. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th
Army Corps, to May, 1865.
SERVICE.--March up the Potomac to Leesburg, thence
to Falmouth, Va., October-November 19, 1862, Battle of
Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. Burnside's 2nd Campaign,
"Mud March," January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth
until April. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6.
Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign
June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Pursuit
of Lee July 5-24. Wapping Heights, Va., July 23. Duty
on line of the Rappahannock until October. Bristoe Campaign
October 9-22. Auburn October 13. Auburn and Bristoe October
14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8.
Kelly's Ford November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December
2. Payne's Farm November 27. Demonstration on the Rapidan
February 6-7, 1864. At Brandy Station until May, 1864.
Assigned to duty as Provost Guard at Headquarters Army
of the Potomac April 18. Rapidan Campaign May 4-June 12.
Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Spottsylvania Court
House May 8-21. Guinea Station May 21. North Anna River
May 23-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy
May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June
16-18. Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond
June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Garrison and Provost
duty at City Point, Va., June 18, 1864, to March 28, 1865.
Assault on and fall of Petersburg April 2. Occupation
of Petersburg April 3. Moved to Washington, D.C., May
1-12. Grand Review May 23. Mustered out May 29, 1865.
Regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 66 Enlisted
men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 37 Enlisted
men by disease. Total 111.